Hubert Prévost the entrepreneur: Power couple

Seventh of an eight-part series describing the real and imagined life of Hubert Prévost of Maisonneuve.

By the time of the census in 1891, Hebert and Héloise were living with Sem Alexandre and Alphonsine (Alvina’s children) and Joseph Hubert, their son. Also resident at their house were two labourers, Noel Roussel a widower and Amée Belec. Sem is also listed as an employee (most likely working with his father). Hubert’s daughter Eugenie Appoline is living next door with her husband J.B. Foisy.

In the latter half of 1890, Héloise becomes more involved in the business. It’s not known what prompted this shift in strategy, but it is certain that Héloise’s name increasingly appears on property transactions. Hubert also guarantees a mortgage of a property in Héloise’s name.

Hubert wins a substantial contract to build a Presbyterian church and school at the corner of Adam and Letourneau streets in Maisonneuve. The church was expanded in 1908, but later burned to the ground in 1925.

In 1891 Hubert forms a business partnership with Elzear Benoit, another contractor, called Prévost & Benoit. The business will provide all the necessary trades for building construction.

In October 1891, the town of Maisonneuve contracted with the Royal Electric Light Company to provide an electric light service for the municipality. Prévost & Benoit also signed a contract with the town for the construction of the electric light station and residence. The project faced legal challenges as an injunction was issued to stop work on the site, which was quashed by the courts. Then force was used to stop employees from working. The issue was that the town did not have the charter authority to grant the contract. The company (Royal Electric) sued and won a judgement for $4,861 with interest against the town.

It’s not certain what, if any, compensation Prévost & Benoit might have received from the settlement, or whether they sustained losses as a result. Whatever the cause, things started to go downhill in early 1892. First Hubert’s creditors were advised in a demande de cession notice of his impending bankruptcy. In April, bankruptcy proceedings got under way and an auction of business assets took place on April 26, 1892. Many of his lots in Hochelaga and Maisonneuve are put on the auction block to pay off creditors.

To make matters worse, the town of Maisonneuve brought a suit against Prevost & Benoit, demanding that the contractors stop work due to poor workmanship and materials used, and not meeting the specifications of the contract.

On May 2, 1892, Héloise forms H. Provost & Cie as sole proprietor. She is also recorded buying some of the auctioned properties from her husband’s bankruptcy sale. The lots in question appear to include the location of Hubert’s lumber mill. More interestingly, Hubert’s bankruptcy proceedings, the formation of a new carpentry business, and the purchase of the mill all took place just days before the town of Maisonneuve brought their suit against Prevost & Benoit.

Perhaps the few bright spots for Hubert that spring were the birth of a granddaughter, Antoinette, to son Michel and Ernestine Belliveau, and the marriage of Hubert’s son Sem Alexandre to Louisa Collin.

school building
Ecole St-Joseph

Their annus horribilus behind them, in 1893 Héloise purchases four lots on Ste-Catherine Street from Alphonse Desjardins for $1,800. Hubert then wins a contract from les Commissaires d’ecoles d’Hochelaga to build the first primary school in the ward. The school probably stood on the corner of Dezery and Duquette streets.

On May 8, 1893, Héloise’s father, Laurent Napoleon Desautels dit Lapointe dies in Mascouche. He is buried a few days later in the church crypt with Hubert attending as a witness.

In 1894, Héloise begins to have her own business issues. She has four lots in the Quartier Ste-Marie area on Ste-Catherine St which will be auctioned in October to pay for back taxes and an unpaid sidewalk assessment. Héloise reaches a settlement agreement with the town of Maisonneuve for her unpaid assessments about a year later in July 1895. However, her properties are still listed for sale in the papers of August 10 and again that fall. About that time they moved from 29 Desjardins (now occupied by Napoleon Turcotte (carpenter), John Wilson, Pierre Prince and Alcide Gendron (carter).

His son Michel is still at 1 Desjardins Street and Hubert still has a saw mill at 5 Desjardins. By 1900 the extent of Desjardins St now reaches to Ontario St. to the north.

The same day that Hubert’s father dies at 88 years old, Héloise arranges for a five-year mortgage with 10% interest on four lots for $2,900. The money is borrowed from the estate of Sir Georges Etienne Cartier, politician and Father of Confederation. Sir George Etienne Cartier’s estate was substantial enough that a group of executors managed the assets in order to provide an income for his heirs.

Hubert seems to have taken a less visible role in his contracting business. It could be that his son Sem had taken over or, judging from Héloise’s property buying and selling activities, living off profits from flipping property. Another possibility could be that the Prévosts were in financial difficulty. Without a deeper investigation of all the contracts this couple generated, we may never know.

We do know that Hubert kept an interest in municipal affairs. 1896 was an election year and Hubert Provost was one of many who signed a public endorsement of the candidacy of J.C. Robert for reelection as alderman for the Ste-Marie district of Montreal.

That same year, Héloise unloaded the troublesome lots on Ste-Catherine Street for $7,017.60 to A. Duperrault.

In 1897, the mill on Desjardins Street seems to have been leased to Tremblay & Gingras, who are now listed as operating 3 Desjardins as a saw mill and the property at 5 Desjardins no longer has any name associated with it.

Héloise’s mother Marie Olive Guerray dies on March 18, 1897 at the age of 79 in Mascouche.

The Prévost home on Desjardins Street, built by Hubert, is still in use today (current address is 591-605 rue Desjardins) . In May 1988, Héloise once again takes out a mortgage on the property from Joseph Desrosiers for $3,500 and again in June from the Cartier estate for $5,000.

row houses
Prevost-built row houses on Desjardins Street.

Still active in municipal affairs, Hubert was a member of a group tasked with setting a value for compensating owners of land to be expropriated to open up rue Lafontaine. Their report was submitted to the city for in 1899. But it appears that collecting honorariums for providing expertise to the town isn’t easy. On November 30, 1900 several businessmen file a writ of summons against the town for $395.

The town makes a settlement offer of $26 each, which was refused. Prévost is quoted saying “Tu peux les garder“. Two days later, the men file their claim in Quebec Superior Court.

Hubert attended two marriages in 1900. First his daughter Alphonsine married Wilfrid Alphonse Godin in Montréal, then his son Sem Alexandre, widowed, married Philomene Limoges, also in Montreal. All his children by Zoe Alvina have by this time left the nest.

The 1901 census gives us a picture of Hubert’s situation. He is still listed as an employer and living on his own means. He runs his business from home and earned $4,000 in the previous year, certainly a very respectable income for a member of the manufacturing bourgeoisie. Both Hubert and his son Joseph Hubert were bilingual.

More grandchildren arrived. One in 1901 to Sem Alexandre and Philomene Limoges, who had just purchased a lot on Adam Street (possibly for building his own home). Another, Marie Blanche Jeanette, was born in 1902 to Michel Hubert and Ernestine Belliveau and Gaston, to Sem and Philomene in 1902.

In April 1902, Hubert prepared a new will. In it he directs:

  1. That his debts and funeral costs including masses be paid by his executor
  2. His property (including any encumbrances) on Ste-Catherine street (including buildings) is bequeathed to his six children by Zoe Reeves, in consideration of their legacy from her estate. If they refuse, the property reverts to his general estate.
  3. The remainder of his belongings are bequeathed to his second wife, Héloise. If she predeceases him, then the estate goes to their son Joseph Hubert.
  4. Some notes about proceeds of sales to pay debts incurred in good faith (such as mortgages).
  5. He names Héloise as his executor.

The witnesses to his will were the Chief of Police Thomas O’Farrell and Urgel Vanier, shoe merchant. Hubert died the following month on May 3, 1902 in Maisonneuve. He was buried in the parish cemetery in Pointe-aux-Trembles. In addition to his three sons and brother Zotique, his funeral was attended by many of Maisonneuve’s business and civic leaders – including Mayor Trefflé Bleau, who was one of his pallbearers.

His obituary in La Presse reveals much about the service he gave to his community:

  • Deacon and founder of his parish in Pointe-aux Trembles
  • Vice-president of the Montreal St-Vincent-de-Paul society
  • School trustee
  • Alderman/town councilor.

Sources

Hubert Prévost the entrepreneur: An independent woman

Fifth of an eight-part series describing the real and imagined life of Hubert Prévost of Maisonneuve.

Before 1886 ended, Hubert married for a second time to Héloise Lapointe of Mascouche, herself a widow.

Héloise Lapointe was born on November 9, 1848 to Napoleon Desautels dit Lapointe and Marie Olive Guerray in Mascouche. Despite the similar surnames, Héloise does not appear to be a close relation to Zoe Alvina’s mother’s Lapointe family.

In 1860, there were four schools in Mascouche: Cabane-Ronde, Grand Coteau, Petit Coteau et Pincourt. It’s quite likely Héloise Lapointe attended one of them as she is shown on the 1861 census as attending school. This is important because, for many years, attempts to create an educational system for Catholics failed. In 1846, a new law allowed the creation of school boards by ensuring the collection of a tax devoted to the financing of the education system. Each Catholic parish church became de facto the territory of a school board. A significant proportion of the population opposed a tax being imposed to support education. Worse, many parents, especially farmers, did not see the value of educating children. This period of the 1840s is called la guerre des éteignoirs, because in some places, schools were set on fire. Héloise is probably the first generation of her family to receive an education.

According to the 1861 census, Héloise’s family includes nine persons who are living in a single-story house of wood construction. Her father appears to be a farmer (according to the 1851 census) and is illiterate. In 1871, Héloise Lapointe is still living with her parents and six siblings in St-Henri (l’Assomption).

Héloise (Eloise) Lapointe and Philias Roy of Mascouche, a notary, marry in 1877. Before the wedding, they sign a marriage contract where they are separatist of property and that the bride will pay the costs of the marriage and contribute household items valued at $100.

Shortly after their marriage, Héloise and Philias lived in the west end of Montreal island, in St Joachim de la Pointe Claire Village. Philias died in 1882 in Mascouche. They had no children.

How Hubert and Héloise met is a mystery, but on the documented evidence available, they appear to have been a team when it came to business.

For married women, unlike single or widowed women, the right to use and dispose of their own property didn’t come into effect until 1884 in Ontario and 1900 in Manitoba. The Married Women’s Property Act gave married women in these provinces the same legal rights as men, which allowed these women to be able to enter into legal agreements and buy property. Quebec did not include the act into the Civil Code until 1964!

Yet, that was not always the case in practice. In an article entitled Surviving as a Widow in 19th-century Montreal, Bettina Bradbury writes:

The women who remarried appear to have been wealthier than those who did not. A disproportionate number had signed marriage contracts at the time of their marriage, a practice more widespread among the wealthy, and particularly the propertied classes. Furthermore, several had already exercised more legal and economic freedom within their marriages than most Quebec women, having renounced the creation of a “communauté des biens” at the time of their marriage, and retained control over their own property, by opting for the separation of their goods. The apparent tendency for our small sample of wealthy women to remarry more than other women, which requires more study, suggests that the attraction of the rich widow in the marriage market outweighed any allure living independently may have held for those women able to do so.

Héloise seems to have been one of those women. She was educated, had married well, and when she contracted marriage with Hubert, their agreement was to remain separatist of property, unlike the contract Hubert and Alvina signed in 1862. This stipulation specifically retains her rights to hold and manage her property and any revenue she derives from such. And so begins Hubert’s next stage of life and business when he and Héloise married on November 13, 1886.


Sources

  • 1861 Census of Canada. Canada East (Quebec) Library and Archives Canada. http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca
  • 1871 Census of Canada. Province: Quebec Library & Archives Canada. http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca
  • 1881 census of Canada; Quebec, Library & Archives Canada. http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca
  • A brief history of women’s rights in Canada. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage
  • Bradbury, B. Surviving as a Widow in 19th-century Montreal. Urban History Review, https:// doi.org/10.7202/1017628ar
  • Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires; Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada. http://www.banc.qc.ca
  • Gariepy, Edgar. photographe 1881-1956: Saint-Henri-de-Mascouche : le manoir des Le Gardeur de Repentigny ou manoir Pangman. La collection Gariépy à la Bibliothèque municipale de Montréal
  • Institut Généalogique Drouin; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. http://www.institutdrouin.com
  • Martel, Claude. Un Brin d’histoire. Journal la Revue; http://www.larevue.qc.ca

Hubert Prévost the entrepreneur: An urban generation

Second of an eight-part series describing the real and imagined life of Hubert Prévost of Maisonneuve.

The Prévost and Reeves families were probably well-acquainted as Hubert and Alvina were not the first Prévost-Reeves union to take place. Several years before Alvina (aka Zoe) married Hubert (fils), she appears as a witness (the first time we see her signature) to Hubert’s sister Lucie’s wedding to Olivier Reeves – likely a cousin.
Did their courtship begin at this wedding? Did Alvina catch the bride’s bouquet (assuming that custom was followed)? We’ll never know. Their marriage would still be some years ahead. On the other hand, Hubert (père), twice a widower, tied the knot a third time in 1856 with Julie Forest in a wedding that took place in St-Roch-de-l’Achigan.

As Hubert (fils) and Alvina reached adulthood, urbanization and technological innovations were changing the fabric of urban life. In Hubert’s line of work, duplexes started to make an appearance in Montreal. Now ubiquitous, these two-story buildings became the housing standard and were a solution to providing low-income tenants with affordable housing. Other construction and public utility innovations included: iron or steel structures, elevators, electricity, natural gas service, streetcars and traffic lights. All of these accelerated the growth of suburban areas as industries moved farther out of the core and supporting infrastructures improved, aided by grand civil engineering projects like railways, canals, municipal water works and the Victoria bridge which opened in 1860.

In the east end of Montreal, these changes were pronounced and rapid. Industrialists and politicians embraced and encouraged modernization projects. In 1867, on rue Notre-Dame est, Catelli opened the first pasta manufacturing facility in Canada. The east-end area became home to cotton mills, shoe manufacturing and other mechanized factories.

The 1861 census provides a bit more clarity into the Prévost and Reeves families, both living in Pointe-aux-Trembles. Hubert (fils) is still at the family home (he will be married in the following year). He, like his father and brothers, is listed as a carpenter/joiner. The family of seven is living in a single-story house of wood construction. The Reeves are living in a single-story stone two-family house. Charles Reeves is still farming, and the household includes Alvina’s grandfather, Louis, who is 84 and retired, as well as her aunt Christine Reeves and uncle Hyppolyte Reeves.

Much of Pointe-aux-Trembles is rural in1861. An atlas of the city and suburbs of Montreal clearly shows the extent of the land Charles had under cultivation, about 191 arpents bordering on the St-Lawrence River. Nearby is the 186 arpent farm of cousins Joseph and Olivier Reeves (the husband of Hubert’s sister Lucie in 1855).

Map of Pointe-aux-Trembles
Detail from 1878 Montreal atlas showing rural land partitions in Pointe-aux-Trembles

1862 kicked off with the wedding of Hubert’s sister Dorimene to Louis Lafranchise in Montreal. Not long after, on May 1, 1862 Hubert and Alvina prepare for their nuptials by signing their marriage contract at the home of her parents with some family members present. Hubert is working as an entrepreneur menuisier – a business he will grow over the coming years. The contract details the property and goods each will bring to the marriage, including some tools of Hubert’s trade. With some exceptions, they will enter into a community of property agreement. The contract also stipulates how property will be disposed of if one predeceases the other, with or without children. The future bride signed as Zoe Reeves.

On May 12, Hubert & Alvina were married at St-Enfant-Jesus church in Pointe-aux-Trembles. Both the bride and groom signed the register, along with the following witnesses: Olivier Reeves (relationship to Alvina not defined, husband of Hubert’s sister Lucie), Charles Reeves (Alvina’s father) and Charles Reeves (her brother) as well as Leandre Tessier, presumably a friend. Before long, their first child is born. Marie Alvina arrives on September 20, 1863. Her godparents were grandparents Charles Reeves (Alvina’s father) and Marie Julie Foret dite Marin (Hubert Sr.’s third wife). The children of Alvina and Hubert will be the first generation in this family line to grow up in an urban setting.

In May 1865, Alvina’s brother Charles Reeves marries Justine Lamoureux. Hubert and Alvina sign the register as witnesses. Sadly, barely three years later, Charles is a widower and returns to the alter, with Hubert as a witness, to marry Emma Laporte on January 14, 1868.

In the fall, Alvina and Hubert have a second child, Michel Hubert, who is born on September 30, 1865. This time the godparents are the other grandparents: Hubert Prévost (père) and Zoe Desautels, Alvina’s mother. On February 9, 1867, Eugenie Appoline Prévost was born. Her godparents were Hubert’s sister Lucie and her husband Olivier Reeves.

On March 14, 1868, Sem Alexandre Provost, Hubert and Alvina’s fourth child, was born. His godparents were his uncle and aunt, Charles Reeves (fils) and Emma Laporte, his second wife. Next, a daughter, Marie Ezilda Prévost, was born on August 11, 1869. Her godparents were her aunt and uncle Dorimene Prévost and Louis Lafranchise. Another daughter was born on November 2, 1870 – Alphonsine Hortense – only to die about nine months later on August 9, 1871. it appears that her grandfather witnessed her burial (usually the father is the witness) as the register notes that Hubert Prévost could not sign. Hubert (fils) was known to be literate.

By the time Alvina and Hubert’s last child, Marie Alphonsine, was born on March 10, 1873 , the Hochelaga district of Montreal was expanding rapidly and its population almost quadrupled. Over the next decade, road and tramway expansions, cotton mills, a tobacco factory, and other industries meant jobs for many workers – and they needed housing, creating opportunities for those in the construction trade. New roads were laid out – such as Pie-IX Boulevard and Jeanne-d’Arc street – and the growth of railways meant terminals and shops were set up in western Hochelaga. This rapid growth came with some challenges. Municipal finances were drained by the construction of infrastructures such as streets, sewers and an aqueduct, so the idea of facilitating urbanization by annexing Hochelaga to Montreal took hold.

The newly constituted Dominion of Canada’s first census was taken on April 2, 1871. In just 10 years, Hubert and Alvina’s household grew to include six children. Their three oldest children are attending school.


Sources

 

Hubert Prévost the entrepreneur: Intro

First of an eight-part series describing the real and imagined life of Hubert Prévost of Maisonneuve.

In the mid 19th century, Montreal was the largest city in British North America. As a prosperous financial and manufacturing centre, it witnessed dramatic socio-economic change, first with the waves of immigration and then with the shift from rural subsistence farming to wage-paying factory jobs.

This period saw the emergence of French-Canadian entrepreneurs and industrialists, many of whom set up businesses in Montreal’s eastern sector and then became civic leaders as these areas grew to become municipalities.

It’s in this era that Hubert Prévost, son of Hubert and Lucie Archambault of Pointe-aux-Trembles, came to become our first industrialist ancestor. His presence on earth is well-documented, yet each piece of discovered evidence generates many other questions about his motivations, successes or failures as a businessman. A life story worthy of additional research that we’ll save for a sequel.

A CHILD OF THE VICTORIAN ERA

Hubert’s life (1836-1902) spanned the same period as the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1902). He would have witnessed the emergence of Canada from colony to Dominion and the impact of the industrial revolution first-hand.

He was born on October 17, 1836 to Hubert (père), a woodworker (menuisier) living in Pointe-aux-Trembles, and Lucie Archambault, originally of St-Roch-de-l’Achigan, about 40km north of Pointe-aux-Trembles. At the time of his birth, he had an older sister, Luce, born in 1834.

A couple of years later, Marie Zoe Elvina Rive was born to Charles Reeves and Zoe Desautels dite Lapointe on March 4, 1839 in Longue Pointe, a municipality not far from Pointe-aux-Trembles. Zoe Elvina would become Hubert’s wife in 1862.

The origins of the Reeves (also Rive, Rives) family remain a bit of a mystery. Despite what one would assume, the Reeves family (at least this one) had no Irish roots. Instead, it’s believed that Joseph Reeves (Zoe Alvina’s great-grandfather) was born in Port au Basques (Newfoundland) in 1727 and was later baptised in the community of St-Marie in Maryland. Maryland was a haven for Catholics and could be reached by sea without encountering hostile (to the French) British ships patrolling the waterways around Quebec and Acadie.

When Alvina’s brother Charles was born in 1840, the Reeves family appear to be living in the Pointe-aux-Trembles area. Charles (fils) would die six months later. Another brother Louis Charles was born in 1842. At the Provost home, Hubert’s sister Anne Dorimene was born in 1840 followed by a brother Joseph in 1843. These family events occurred against a backdrop of political change that eventually led to nationhood. In the aftermath of the Mackenzie-Papineau rebellions, Upper and Lower Canada were united in 1841 to become the Province of Canada and were renamed to Canada East and Canada West. In 1842, in order to determine parliamentary representation after the Act of Union, a major census of Canada East and West was undertaken. Unfortunately, listings for the Prévost and Reeves families have not been found, possibly because not all the returns survived.

A wave of immigration flowed into Montreal as the effects of the Irish potato famine drove the Irish diaspora, and when the U.S. doubled passage fees to American ports many immigrants chose Canada as their destination. The influx strained the local resources. French Catholics were encouraged to adopt orphaned children and, over time, marriages between the French and Irish populations resulted in a mixed bag of Canadians who had Irish surnames but were raised in French and vice versa – a literal definition of mother tongue. Perhaps the family myth about the Reeves being Irish started around this time.

In 1846 and 1847, two more brothers, Zotique and Eugene, are born, completing Hubert’s (père) and Lucie’s family. As Hubert (fils) approached his mid-teens, Montreal was spreading out to the east. By 1850 Longue Pointe was becoming increasingly urban and industrialized due to the expansion of Montreal’s port and the creation of the Lachine Canal. With industrialization came innovation and new ways of working. As a carpenter (menuisier), Hubert’s father might have seen the replacement of pitsaws (or straight saws) for circular saws driven by steam or water power at sawmills. Perhaps his son Hubert was already learning the trade and dreamt of modernizing the family business with steam-powered equipment.

Illustration of a circular saw invention
Illustration of a circular saw invention published in Scientific American, 1855

Lumber was a big business. In 1851 there were 1,631 mills worked by steam and water power producing 7.7 million board feet of lumber and 4.6 million planks per year. Canada East craftsmen included 379 chairmakers, cabinetmakers and upholsterers; and 8923 shipwrights, carpenters and joiners.

In 1851 we learn a little more about the families of Hubert and Zoe Alvina through the Canada East census of that year – dubbed the first thorough Canadian census. The Provost family – Hubert, Lucie and their six children are still living in Pointe-aux-Trembles. Also in Pointe-aux-Trembles are Charles Reeves, cultivateur, his wife Zoe Lapointe (Desautels), and their children Alvina and Charles (fils). Living with Charles and his family was his father Louis who was 78 years old and retired.

According to the agricultural census of the same year, brothers Louis and Charles Reeves were farming over 200 arpents. Charles’ farm consisted of 102 arpents, with 88 arpents cultivated, of which 76 arpents produced a harvest. 12 of his arpents were en paturage, and 12 arpents were forested or woodlot. Together they produced about 260 minots (bushels) of wheat. When the seigneurial system was abolished in 1854, many tenant farmers bought or acquired the lands they worked. It’s not clear whether the Reeves were tenant farmers or owned their acreages.

In 1852, an event occurred that likely had an impact on Hubert’s (fils) future business career as a building contractor. 1,100 homes on the east side of Montreal went up in flames, leaving more than 10,000 people – about 20% of the population – homeless. As a result, new fireproofing standards were introduced for house construction.

At the end of 1852, Hubert’s mother Lucie Archambault passed away. Hubert was 16 years old. The youngest in the family, Eugene, was only five. Two years later, Hubert’s father married Emilie Chartier. Emilie was 36 at the time, the daughter of Antoine Chartier and Desanges Pepin. Their marriage was short-lived as Emilie died in 1855. By then, Hubert was 19.


Sources

  • 1842 Canada East census. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa. http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca
  • 1851 Census of Canada East, Canada West, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Library and Archives Canada
  • Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec
  • Great Fire of 1852. Wikipedia. 2018-12-17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Fire_of_1852
  • Institut Généalogique Drouin; Montreal, Quebec, Canada. http://www.institutdrouin.com
  • Pound, Richard W.; Editorial Director; Canadian Facts and Dates; 3rd Edition. 2005.
  • Reeves, Chs-L. (fr. Damien O.F.M.). The Rives… and Reeves families in New France; translated by Gail Moreau. https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Reeves-3207
  • Scientific American; Old Series (1845–1859); Volume 11 Issue No. 50 19 January 1855. Munn & Co.
  • Scott, Marian. The Montreal Gazette; August 12, 2017. “Montreal-refugees-and-the-irish-famine-of-1847”