Last of an eight-part series describing the real and imagined life of Hubert Prévost of Maisonneuve.
In 1902 Hubert left behind his second wife, Héloise Lapointe and their 13-year-old son Joseph. What happened to them after his death?
Héloise remarried about 18 months later to Amedée Champagne in Montreal after signing a separatist of property marriage contract that protected her assets from forming part of their communal property. Amedée moves into the home at 27 Desjardins Street with Héloise after their marriage. The parish they were married in –Très-Saint-Nom-de-Jésus – was just beginning construction on a grander church that would be completed in 1906. It was to be well-known for its rich decoration and was designed by Albert Mesnard and Charles-Aimé Reeves (Zoe Alvina’s nephew and a prominent Montreal architect).
In 1906, Sem Alexandre (Hubert and Zoe Alvina’s son) obtains a declaration of death for his mother, probably for final settlement of his mother’s estate.
Not much is seen of Héloise (at least from a documentary evidence perspective) until the census of 1911 where we see that she is once again widowed and is living in Laval (St-Martin) with her nephew Henri Martel. It’s possible that she leased out her home in Maisonneuve.
In 1912 the Montreal Women’s Suffrage Association and the Fédération nationale Saint-Jean-Baptiste were working to bring the right to vote to Quebec women. As an independent-minded wife, businesswoman and property owner, did Héloise support their cause? Although women could vote in federal elections, their right to vote and run in provincial elections wasn’t won until 1940.
In 1920, Héloise sold the home on Desjardins street to Olier Boileau, a dairyman, for $1,650. Then follow a number of financial transactions to settle debts with the Cartier estate and Hector Decary, and the issuance of a new loan from the Cartier estate.
Our story of this remarkable family closes with the death of Héloise on August 22, 1922 at her sister’s home in St-Vincent-de-Paul after a long illness. She was buried in Cote-des-Neiges cemetery in Montreal. Her son Joseph Hubert appears to have joined the business she built with Hubert. It’s quite telling that the writers of her obituary in La Press listed her under her married name with Hubert and gives no mention of her other two husbands.
Fourth of an eight-part series describing the real and imagined life of Hubert Prévost of Maisonneuve.
In the years following Confederation, Canada felt the effects of the Long Depression that afflicted world economies, particularly England. Between 1874 (the year the Montreal Stock Exchange was established) and 1896 there was widespread unemployment and a rise in bankruptcies. Protectionist policies in the United States and Britain hurt trade, and demand for Canadian resources and goods slumped. Despite this, industrial expansion in Montreal’s new east-end towns was getting well under way, led by prominent French-Canadian businessmen and landowners like Hudon, Barsalou, Viau, Desjardins and others. When the depression ended, investment from Britain resumed in Canada, immigration grew and manufacturing expanded.
For almost 100 years Montreal was the financial capital of Canada with many ‘emerging tech’ businesses like railways and telecommunications establishing their headquarters there. Banking and leading businessmen were early adopters of the telephone and by the end of 1880, Montreal was the most wired city in Canada – with 546 telephones in use.
Hubert’s business was expanding into multi-family dwellings and some commercial projects. He also had several business dealings with Victor Hudon, one of Hochelaga’s leading industrialists, who established a large cotton mill among other businesses. It’s also clear that not all of Hubert’s contracts went smoothly, as there are records regarding dispute settlements and lawsuits.
In 1881 Hubert and Alvina’s family of six children are recorded in the census as living in the district of Hochelaga (Montreal) in the village of Côte-de-la-Visitation. They have four children attending school: Michel, Sem, Ezilda and Alphonsine.
Two years later, Hochelaga was annexed to Montreal. That spurred a group of French-Canadian landowners to found Maisonneuve – a city inspired by the City Beautiful movement . Its developers planned to build grand civic buildings and factories – and at one point Maisonneuve became known as the “Pittsburgh of Canada”. Judging from the numerous property transactions and contracts for work in the area, it’s clear that Hubert Prévost was among those early industrialists of Maisonneuve.
In 1882 Victor Hudon was expanding his textile manufacturing business and planned to build a new mill (St. Ann Spinning Co.) with authorized capital of $300,000 and an exemption from taxes for 25 years from the town council of Hochelaga. Hubert Prévost was among those named to the board of directors. V. Hudon’s mill and the St-Ann Spinning company later merged to become the Hochelaga Cotton Mill.
Victor Hudon’s mills were an important part of the area’s economy. In 1874 it employed 250 workers – including many women and children, some as young as 10. Conditions were harsh – a situation that led to a Royal Commission in 1888 to investigate child labor in the mills. It was learned that many children worked barefoot because they had no shoes, most had not attended school and the majority could neither read nor write. While the factory still carried Hudon’s name at the time of the commission, he no longer owned the business.
On June 11, 1883 an application to form a joint stock company is announced led by Victor Hudon and with Hubert Prévost and others as provisional directors. The stock offering is for 2,000 shares of $100 each. The company is called La Compagnie de Filature Saint-Joseph, Beauharnois and will manufacture cottons into various fabrics.
It seems that the Beauharnois town council were willing to grant a tax exemption to the new mill for 20 years, a subsidy of $8,000 and free access to hydroelectricity. They also committed to purchase $80,000 in shares of the new company. But for some reason the project never got off the ground.
In 1883, Hubert’s father, now 76, decides to make provisions for himself and his wife Lucie in their old age. He made a living donation to his son Eugene in advance of his inheritance of a lot in Pointe-aux-Trembles for his use (possibly the family home). In return Eugene must clothe, feed and lodge his parents. If they can’t perform these duties satisfactorily, then the property reverts to the parents and they may sell it to pay for their ease and care.
On December 26, 1884, Hubert (fils) achieves a measure of status when he is among a group of men who are named Justices of the Peace in the District of Montreal. He holds this post until 1894 and only appears to have been active during 1889, when he heard seven cases.
In 1885, Hubert begins to focus on public sector projects. He submits a bid for the construction of a market – one of six firms to bid on the construction contract. His bid of $19,800 was unsuccessful, and just $1 higher than the winning proposal.
On March 14, 1886 Zoe Alvina Reeves passed away afer a long and difficult illness. Could she have been a victim of the smallpox epidemic of the previous fall? That epidemic killed 1,391 Montrealers, 1,286 of which were French Canadian, despite a mandatory smallpox vaccination program that was protested by angry mobs. Her death was announced in La Presse.
Less than a month later, their oldest daughter, Alvina, is the first of the children to marry. Her husband Joseph Christin appears to also have had an interest in property, as the name Christin is tied to some lots in St-Mary Ward.
In September, probably in accordance with Alvina’s will, Hubert arranges for an inventory and valuation of their matrimonial property. The inventory provides a good insight into their means and the degree to which Hubert’s business was entwined with the household finances. The home had an office, sitting room, dining room, kitchen, and bedroom on the main floor. Upstairs were three other bedrooms and an attic space. There was also a workshop, outbuilding and barn.
Apart from the usual array of household furnishings and small goods were the following items:
A piano made by L & E Fisher of New York ($250)
A wine press and bird cage ($2.50)
A carriage (voiture) valued at $60 along with an assortment of wagons and a sleigh
Two horses – un presque ruiné ($100)
One cow ($20)
The total valuation of their communal property was $1,168.70.
Zoe’s personal belongings (such as clothing) were divided among the daughters and not included in the inventory. The inventory took seven hours to complete on the first day.
The next day, Charles Reeves and Joseph Chretien (husband of Alvina Provost) supervised another inventory session in Maisonneuve. Before that got underway, Hubert added a declaration to the effect that he undertook on behalf of Alphonse Desjardins the construction of 6 houses in the Pie IX area of Maisonneuve for the sum of $7,880 – due the following April. Because he did not keep records of actual expenses incurred to date for the work, he proposed a separate evaluation to assess the amount of profit/or loss to be added to the inventory valuation. The valuators assessed the value of the work completed to date at $4,730 and the remaining work at $3,150, with a calculation of the expected profit. The result, along with other building materials added $1,399.10 to the estate valuation.
The inventory continued a third day with an accounting of finances (cash and deposits $10.20). Money owed (from business transactions and property rentals) amounted to $5,154.67, of which $1,500 was expected to be a write off (Victor Hudon). As a note to the evaluation, Hubert intended to sue the School Board for $1,000 for breach of contract. He had a life insurance policy that he paid over 25 years amounting to $1,000; Zoe also had a life insurance policy of $1,000 which was claimed.
On the liability side, debts totaled $11,811 consisting mostly of loans related to business and property transactions. Zoe’s funeral costs were $67.72 and the notary fees for the inventory were $142.25.
Real estate holdings accumulated during their marriage included:
Property in Point-aux-Trembles with house, workshop, barn and other buildings in good condition
5 lots in Pointe-aux-Trembles without buildings
4 lots in Hochelaga Village
3 lots in Hochelaga with houses
1 lot in Hochelaga on Notre Dame Street
The inventory concluded on the fourth day with a review of titles and legal documents and additional declarations by Hubert regarding:
The donation of $500 from Zoe’s parents per the marriage contract
Property in Hochelaga that was sold
Additional bank deposits of about $2400
About $4000 in payables due
Additional debts bringing the total owed to $16,080.80
On September 21st, there was a double wedding in Pointe-aux-Trembles. Brother and sister Michel and Eugenie are married the same day in Pointe-aux-Trembles. Michel marries Ernestine Belliveau daughter of Hilaire and Marie Célina Cadotte; and Eugenie marries Jean Baptiste Foisy, son of Urgel and Elmire Lavoie.
Third of an eight-part series describing the real and imagined life of Hubert Prévost of Maisonneuve.
It’s around 1871 that Hubert appears to have established himself as a building contractor. Dozens of transactions are recorded from this point that document construction contracts, financial obligations, payment receipts, tenant leases and more. The volume of documents provides a rich record of business dealings yet seems to generate more questions than answers as to the successes or failures he encountered. A closer study may yet reveal some of those answers.
In the 1871 Lovell directory for Montreal and area, we find business listings for Hubert Prévost and some of his relations:
Prévost H., carpenter, 318 Visitation Montreal [Hochelaga area. This is likely Hubert père.]
Prévost Hubert~ jun. Joiner living in Pointe-aux-Trembles
Prévost Eugéne, stonecutter in Ste-Genevieve [parish of Montreal, this is likely Hubert’s brother]
Prévost Jos. laborer, 28 St Lawrence St. [likely Hubert’s brother]
On the personal front, Hubert received $100 from his brother-in-law Charles Reeves that appears to be a donation to Alvina, possibly as part of the dowry described in her marriage contract.
Some of Hubert’s business dealings are with family relations. One example is a contract with Louis Troie dit Lafranchise (his brother-in-law) who agrees to have a house built by Hubert on rue Mygnon in the Ste-Marie district of Montreal. The document specifies the purchase price ($900) and terms for payment at 6% interest. This appears to be the first record of Hubert’s business dealings. He will go on to buy, develop and sell several lots in Hochelaga and Maisonneuve.
Hubert also provided a loan of $400 to George and Olivier Reeves for their business use. They promise to repay the loan in one year (from May 1). As a security they mortgage some land 2 arpents wide by 40 arpents deep and a second property in Pointe-aux-Trembles 20 feet wide by 70 deep bounded in front by rue Ste-Anne, in back by the cemetery, and on the sides the Chemin de péage [toll road] and the property of Narcisse Allaire.
Hubert purchases a lot from Hippolyte Reeves that is 74 feet wide by 130 feet deep, located in the seigneury of Montreal, with a building already built. It is facing the St-Laurent river and adjoining properties are owned by Jean Bte Brien, Frs H Puran [?] and the heirs of the late Gabriel Monette. The purchaser agrees to pay seigneurial fees going forward and to pay 750 livres, old currency on the next St- Michel [Sept 29] without interest.
Then Hubert sells a lot, also in the seigneury of Montreal, with a frontage of 43 ft on the toll road and 150 ft deep, bordering properties owned by himself, A. Laporte on one side, and Robert Turcotte and Jean-Bte Gervais on the other side, to J. B. Dufort. Hubert Prévost will construct a building 12 x 24 in the same style as that of M. Turcotte with an outhouse (4′ square), a staircase and enclosed gallery. The work is to begin on May 1. The buyer will pay all future seigneurial fees and $1250.
Early in 1872, Hubert’s brother-in-law Louis Troie took a $400 mortgage loan on half of a two-storey brick house from Hubert. The debt is related to their agreement made in April 1871 to build a house for Troie.
On May 4, 1872 Charles Reeves, Alvina’s father, makes the final payment of 400 piastres regarding the donation he promised his daughter in 1865 – either as a dowry or an advance on her inheritance.
In 1876, Hubert and Alvina draw up their wills before notary Octave Regnier. Only Hubert’s copy has been found, but it’s likely Alvina’s contains similar provisions. Hubert’s will also lists a number of specific stipulations:
To pray for his soul and commend him to God
That his debts be paid
That He be buried in the parish cemetery in Pointe-aux-Trembles
He leaves his belongings and property to his wife
If his wife and heir remarry, she must undertake an inventory and valuation of the estate
If one any of their children die, their successors inherit on their behalf.
Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires; Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Hopkins, H.W. Atlas of the city and island of Montreal, including the counties of Jacques Cartier and Hochelaga from actual surveys, based upon the cadastral plans deposited in the office of the Department of Crown Lands. http://numerique.banq.qc.ca/patrimoine/
Second of an eight-part series describing the real and imagined life of Hubert Prévost of Maisonneuve.
The Prévost and Reeves families were probably well-acquainted as Hubert and Alvina were not the first Prévost-Reeves union to take place. Several years before Alvina (aka Zoe) married Hubert (fils), she appears as a witness (the first time we see her signature) to Hubert’s sister Lucie’s wedding to Olivier Reeves – likely a cousin.
Did their courtship begin at this wedding? Did Alvina catch the bride’s bouquet (assuming that custom was followed)? We’ll never know. Their marriage would still be some years ahead. On the other hand, Hubert (père), twice a widower, tied the knot a third time in 1856 with Julie Forest in a wedding that took place in St-Roch-de-l’Achigan.
As Hubert (fils) and Alvina reached adulthood, urbanization and technological innovations were changing the fabric of urban life. In Hubert’s line of work, duplexes started to make an appearance in Montreal. Now ubiquitous, these two-story buildings became the housing standard and were a solution to providing low-income tenants with affordable housing. Other construction and public utility innovations included: iron or steel structures, elevators, electricity, natural gas service, streetcars and traffic lights. All of these accelerated the growth of suburban areas as industries moved farther out of the core and supporting infrastructures improved, aided by grand civil engineering projects like railways, canals, municipal water works and the Victoria bridge which opened in 1860.
In the east end of Montreal, these changes were pronounced and rapid. Industrialists and politicians embraced and encouraged modernization projects. In 1867, on rue Notre-Dame est, Catelli opened the first pasta manufacturing facility in Canada. The east-end area became home to cotton mills, shoe manufacturing and other mechanized factories.
The 1861 census provides a bit more clarity into the Prévost and Reeves families, both living in Pointe-aux-Trembles. Hubert (fils) is still at the family home (he will be married in the following year). He, like his father and brothers, is listed as a carpenter/joiner. The family of seven is living in a single-story house of wood construction. The Reeves are living in a single-story stone two-family house. Charles Reeves is still farming, and the household includes Alvina’s grandfather, Louis, who is 84 and retired, as well as her aunt Christine Reeves and uncle Hyppolyte Reeves.
Much of Pointe-aux-Trembles is rural in1861. An atlas of the city and suburbs of Montreal clearly shows the extent of the land Charles had under cultivation, about 191 arpents bordering on the St-Lawrence River. Nearby is the 186 arpent farm of cousins Joseph and Olivier Reeves (the husband of Hubert’s sister Lucie in 1855).
1862 kicked off with the wedding of Hubert’s sister Dorimene to Louis Lafranchise in Montreal. Not long after, on May 1, 1862 Hubert and Alvina prepare for their nuptials by signing their marriage contract at the home of her parents with some family members present. Hubert is working as an entrepreneur menuisier – a business he will grow over the coming years. The contract details the property and goods each will bring to the marriage, including some tools of Hubert’s trade. With some exceptions, they will enter into a community of property agreement. The contract also stipulates how property will be disposed of if one predeceases the other, with or without children. The future bride signed as Zoe Reeves.
On May 12, Hubert & Alvina were married at St-Enfant-Jesus church in Pointe-aux-Trembles. Both the bride and groom signed the register, along with the following witnesses: Olivier Reeves (relationship to Alvina not defined, husband of Hubert’s sister Lucie), Charles Reeves (Alvina’s father) and Charles Reeves (her brother) as well as Leandre Tessier, presumably a friend. Before long, their first child is born. Marie Alvina arrives on September 20, 1863. Her godparents were grandparents Charles Reeves (Alvina’s father) and Marie Julie Foret dite Marin (Hubert Sr.’s third wife). The children of Alvina and Hubert will be the first generation in this family line to grow up in an urban setting.
In May 1865, Alvina’s brother Charles Reeves marries Justine Lamoureux. Hubert and Alvina sign the register as witnesses. Sadly, barely three years later, Charles is a widower and returns to the alter, with Hubert as a witness, to marry Emma Laporte on January 14, 1868.
In the fall, Alvina and Hubert have a second child, Michel Hubert, who is born on September 30, 1865. This time the godparents are the other grandparents: Hubert Prévost (père) and Zoe Desautels, Alvina’s mother. On February 9, 1867, Eugenie Appoline Prévost was born. Her godparents were Hubert’s sister Lucie and her husband Olivier Reeves.
On March 14, 1868, Sem Alexandre Provost, Hubert and Alvina’s fourth child, was born. His godparents were his uncle and aunt, Charles Reeves (fils) and Emma Laporte, his second wife. Next, a daughter, Marie Ezilda Prévost, was born on August 11, 1869. Her godparents were her aunt and uncle Dorimene Prévost and Louis Lafranchise. Another daughter was born on November 2, 1870 – Alphonsine Hortense – only to die about nine months later on August 9, 1871. it appears that her grandfather witnessed her burial (usually the father is the witness) as the register notes that Hubert Prévost could not sign. Hubert (fils) was known to be literate.
By the time Alvina and Hubert’s last child, Marie Alphonsine, was born on March 10, 1873 , the Hochelaga district of Montreal was expanding rapidly and its population almost quadrupled. Over the next decade, road and tramway expansions, cotton mills, a tobacco factory, and other industries meant jobs for many workers – and they needed housing, creating opportunities for those in the construction trade. New roads were laid out – such as Pie-IX Boulevard and Jeanne-d’Arc street – and the growth of railways meant terminals and shops were set up in western Hochelaga. This rapid growth came with some challenges. Municipal finances were drained by the construction of infrastructures such as streets, sewers and an aqueduct, so the idea of facilitating urbanization by annexing Hochelaga to Montreal took hold.
The newly constituted Dominion of Canada’s first census was taken on April 2, 1871. In just 10 years, Hubert and Alvina’s household grew to include six children. Their three oldest children are attending school.
Hopkins, H.W. Atlas of the city and island of Montreal, including the counties of Jacques Cartier and Hochelaga from actual surveys, based upon the cadastral plans deposited in the office of the Department of Crown Lands. http://numerique.banq.qc.ca/patrimoine/
First of an eight-part series describing the real and imagined life of Hubert Prévost of Maisonneuve.
In the mid 19th century, Montreal was the largest city in British North America. As a prosperous financial and manufacturing centre, it witnessed dramatic socio-economic change, first with the waves of immigration and then with the shift from rural subsistence farming to wage-paying factory jobs.
This period saw the emergence of French-Canadian entrepreneurs and industrialists, many of whom set up businesses in Montreal’s eastern sector and then became civic leaders as these areas grew to become municipalities.
It’s in this era that Hubert Prévost, son of Hubert and Lucie Archambault of Pointe-aux-Trembles, came to become our first industrialist ancestor. His presence on earth is well-documented, yet each piece of discovered evidence generates many other questions about his motivations, successes or failures as a businessman. A life story worthy of additional research that we’ll save for a sequel.
A CHILD OF THE VICTORIAN ERA
Hubert’s life (1836-1902) spanned the same period as the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1902). He would have witnessed the emergence of Canada from colony to Dominion and the impact of the industrial revolution first-hand.
He was born on October 17, 1836 to Hubert (père), a woodworker (menuisier) living in Pointe-aux-Trembles, and Lucie Archambault, originally of St-Roch-de-l’Achigan, about 40km north of Pointe-aux-Trembles. At the time of his birth, he had an older sister, Luce, born in 1834.
A couple of years later, Marie Zoe Elvina Rive was born to Charles Reeves and Zoe Desautels dite Lapointe on March 4, 1839 in Longue Pointe, a municipality not far from Pointe-aux-Trembles. Zoe Elvina would become Hubert’s wife in 1862.
The origins of the Reeves (also Rive, Rives) family remain a bit of a mystery. Despite what one would assume, the Reeves family (at least this one) had no Irish roots. Instead, it’s believed that Joseph Reeves (Zoe Alvina’s great-grandfather) was born in Port au Basques (Newfoundland) in 1727 and was later baptised in the community of St-Marie in Maryland. Maryland was a haven for Catholics and could be reached by sea without encountering hostile (to the French) British ships patrolling the waterways around Quebec and Acadie.
When Alvina’s brother Charles was born in 1840, the Reeves family appear to be living in the Pointe-aux-Trembles area. Charles (fils) would die six months later. Another brother Louis Charles was born in 1842. At the Provost home, Hubert’s sister Anne Dorimene was born in 1840 followed by a brother Joseph in 1843. These family events occurred against a backdrop of political change that eventually led to nationhood. In the aftermath of the Mackenzie-Papineau rebellions, Upper and Lower Canada were united in 1841 to become the Province of Canada and were renamed to Canada East and Canada West. In 1842, in order to determine parliamentary representation after the Act of Union, a major census of Canada East and West was undertaken. Unfortunately, listings for the Prévost and Reeves families have not been found, possibly because not all the returns survived.
A wave of immigration flowed into Montreal as the effects of the Irish potato famine drove the Irish diaspora, and when the U.S. doubled passage fees to American ports many immigrants chose Canada as their destination. The influx strained the local resources. French Catholics were encouraged to adopt orphaned children and, over time, marriages between the French and Irish populations resulted in a mixed bag of Canadians who had Irish surnames but were raised in French and vice versa – a literal definition of mother tongue. Perhaps the family myth about the Reeves being Irish started around this time.
In 1846 and 1847, two more brothers, Zotique and Eugene, are born, completing Hubert’s (père) and Lucie’s family. As Hubert (fils) approached his mid-teens, Montreal was spreading out to the east. By 1850 Longue Pointe was becoming increasingly urban and industrialized due to the expansion of Montreal’s port and the creation of the Lachine Canal. With industrialization came innovation and new ways of working. As a carpenter (menuisier), Hubert’s father might have seen the replacement of pitsaws (or straight saws) for circular saws driven by steam or water power at sawmills. Perhaps his son Hubert was already learning the trade and dreamt of modernizing the family business with steam-powered equipment.
Lumber was a big business. In 1851 there were 1,631 mills worked by steam and water power producing 7.7 million board feet of lumber and 4.6 million planks per year. Canada East craftsmen included 379 chairmakers, cabinetmakers and upholsterers; and 8923 shipwrights, carpenters and joiners.
In 1851 we learn a little more about the families of Hubert and Zoe Alvina through the Canada East census of that year – dubbed the first thorough Canadian census. The Provost family – Hubert, Lucie and their six children are still living in Pointe-aux-Trembles. Also in Pointe-aux-Trembles are Charles Reeves, cultivateur, his wife Zoe Lapointe (Desautels), and their children Alvina and Charles (fils). Living with Charles and his family was his father Louis who was 78 years old and retired.
According to the agricultural census of the same year, brothers Louis and Charles Reeves were farming over 200 arpents. Charles’ farm consisted of 102 arpents, with 88 arpents cultivated, of which 76 arpents produced a harvest. 12 of his arpents were en paturage, and 12 arpents were forested or woodlot. Together they produced about 260 minots (bushels) of wheat. When the seigneurial system was abolished in 1854, many tenant farmers bought or acquired the lands they worked. It’s not clear whether the Reeves were tenant farmers or owned their acreages.
In 1852, an event occurred that likely had an impact on Hubert’s (fils) future business career as a building contractor. 1,100 homes on the east side of Montreal went up in flames, leaving more than 10,000 people – about 20% of the population – homeless. As a result, new fireproofing standards were introduced for house construction.
At the end of 1852, Hubert’s mother Lucie Archambault passed away. Hubert was 16 years old. The youngest in the family, Eugene, was only five. Two years later, Hubert’s father married Emilie Chartier. Emilie was 36 at the time, the daughter of Antoine Chartier and Desanges Pepin. Their marriage was short-lived as Emilie died in 1855. By then, Hubert was 19.