↑ (Hubert PRÉVOST & Marie Lucie ARCHAMBAULT)
+ Marie Zoe Elvina RIVE (1839 – 1886)
| Marie Alvina PRÉVOST (1863 – ?)
| Michel Hubert PROVOST (1865 – 1914~)
| Eugenie Appoline PROVOST (1867 – ?)
| Sem Alexandre PROVOST (1868 – 1940~)
| Marie Elzida PROVOST (1869 – ?)
| Alphonsine Hortense PROVOST (1870 – 1871)
| Marie Alphonsine PROVOST (1873 – 1939)
+ Héloise LAPOINTE (1848 – 1922)
| Joseph Hubert PRÉVOST (1887 – ?)
|1836 10 17
1836 10 18
|Birth of Hubert PRÉVOST on his father’s 29th birthday and baptism the next day.||Pointe-aux-Trembles 1836 parish register (Drouin Collection) ♦|
|1837||Samuel Morse invents the telegraph.
Wheatstone and Cooke send first British telegraph message.
William IV died at Windsor Castle – accession of Queen Victoria (to 1901)
|1839||Frenchmen, Louis Daguerre and J.N. Niepce co-invent
|1839 03 04
1839 03 05
|Marie Zoe Elvina RIVE (Hubert’s future wife) is born in Longue-Pointe (Montreal), Quebec. She is baptised the following day.||Pointe-aux-Trembles 1839 parish register (Drouin Collection) ♦|
|1841 02 10||Act of Union: Upper and Lower Canada united to become the Province of Canada and renamed to Canada East and Canada West.|
|1845-1849||Irish potato famine kills more than a million people.|
|1845||USA doubles cost of passage: USA passage fees encourage immigrants to choose Canada over American ports as their destination.|
|1845 07 01||The municipality of the parish of Saint-François-d’Assise-de-la-Longue-Pointe is constituted.
The municipality of the parish of L’Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles is constituted.
|1846||The Canada-U.S. boundary is completed.|
|1846||The first conference of the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul (SSVP) in Canada was founded by Doctor Joseph Painchaud in 1846, in Quebec City.|
|1847||A worldwide influenza kills millions.
In Canada East, the typhus and cholera epidemic brought by immigrants peaks.
|1848 11 09
1848 11 10
|Birth of Hubert’s second wife, Héloise LAPOINTE in Mascouche QC. She is baptised the following day.||Mascouche 1848 parish register. Drouin Collection. ♦|
|1849||Official bilingualism: All Canadian parliament bills are now in both English and French.|
|1849 10 11||Annexation Manifesto: Montreal’s businessmen unsuccessfully call for Canada’s annexation by the U.S.|
|1850||Expansion of the port of Montreal and the construction of the Lachine canal leads to urbanisation and industrialisation in the east end of Montréal.|
|1851||First Canadian postage stamp: An orange-red stamp is created by Sir Sandford Fleming, sells for three pence and features a beaver.|
|1851-1853||Hubert PROVOT appears with his family on the census in Pointe-aux-Trembles.
Elvina RIEVES appears with her family on the census in Pointe-aux-Trembles.
Considered the first “thorough” Canadian
|1851 Census of Canada East. Library and Archives Canada. ♦|
|1852 12 23||Death of Hubert’s mother Marie Lucile ARCHAMBAULT (1809-1852)||Pointe-aux-Trembles St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles 1852 parish register. Drouin Collection. ♦|
|1854 12 18||Abolition of the seigneurial regime of land ownership.|
|1855 07 01||Constitution of the municipality of the parish of Saint-Henri-de-Mascouche. Creation of the municipality of the parish of Notre-Dame-de-l’Assomption-de-Repentigny.|
|1856||Louis Pasteur invents pasteurisation.|
|1857||Ottawa is declared the capital of Canada by Queen Victoria.|
|1858||Jean Lenoir invents an internal combustion engine.|
|1860||There are four grade schools in Mascouche : Cabane-Ronde,
Grand Coteau, Petit Coteau & Pincourt.The Maple Leaf is first used as the official emblem of Canada during a visit from the Prince of Wales
|1861||Hubert appears in the 1861 census with his father, step-mother and four siblings. They are living in a two-storey wooden home in Pointe-aux-Trembles on 180 arpents of land. They also have one horse, two cows and one pig.
Zoe Elvina appears in the 1861 census with her parents and brother Louis. They are living in a one-story two-family home. She is noted as attending school and is literate.
Heloise DESAUTELS dit Lapointe is living with her family in Mascouche in a wooden one-story house. She is attending school.
|1861 Census of Canada East. Library and Archives Canada. ♦|
|1861 04 15||U.S. Civil war (Union vs Confederacy) begins.|
|1862 05 01||Hubert and Marie Zoe Elvina RIVE sign a marriage contract before notary Octave-Nicolas Régnier.||Regnier 1862 #593; Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1862 05 12||Marriage of Hubert to Marie Zoe Elvina RIVE in Pointe-aux-Trembles||Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1862 M.3. Drouin Collection. ♦|
|1863 09 20||Marie Alvina PRÉVOST is born to Hubert and Zoe Elvina in Pointe-aux-Trembles||Pointe-aux-Trembles St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles 1863 parish register. Drouin Collection. ♦|
|1865||End of American Civil War. Slavery abolished in USA.|
|1865 09 30||Michel Hubert PROVOST is born in Pointe-aux-Trembles – the second child of Hubert and Zoe Elvina.||Personal correspondance between JAC and Therese Roy, 1998. ♦|
|1866||Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.
Fenian Raids take place. Irish Americans raid Canada.
|1867||Foundation of the Catelli pasta factory (the first in Canada) on Notre Dame East in Montreal.
Establishment of the parishes of Sainte-Brigide and La Nativité-de-la-Sainte-Vierge de Hochelaga.
|1867 02 09||Hubert and Zoe Elvina’s third child Eugenie Appoline PROVOST is born in
|St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1867. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1867 07 01||British North America Act creates the Dominion of Canada from the provinces of Canada (Upper and Lower), New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.|
|1868 05 14||Fourth child, Sem Alexandre PROVOST,
is born to Hubert and Zoe Elvina in Pointe-aux-Trembles.
|St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1868. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1869 08 11||Fifth child Marie Ezilda PRÉVOST is born to Hubert and Zoe Elvina in Pointe-aux-Trembles.||Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1868. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1870 11 02||Sixth child, Alphonsine Hortense
PRÉVOST, is born to Hubert and
Zoe Elvina in Pointe-aux-Trembles.
|St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1870. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1871||Hubert and his family (wife and six children) appear in the census, living in
Pointe-aux-Trembles QC.Heloise DESAUTELS dit Lapointe is living with her parents and family in l’Assomption, QC.
|1871 Census of Canada. Library & Archives Canada. ♦|
|1871 04 02||The first national census after Confederation includes Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Canada’s population is at 3,689,257.The population of Hochelaga is about one thousand.|
|1871 08 09||Alphonsine Hortense PRÉVOST dies at the age of about 10 months in Pointe-aux-Trembles.||St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1870/1871. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1873 03 10||Seventh child, Marie Alphonsine PROVOST
is born in Pointe-aux-Trembles to Hubert and Zoe Elvina.
|St-Enfant- Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1873. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1873 11 07||Alexander Mackenzie, Liberal, becomes the 2nd PM of Canada.|
|1875||La mont;ée Masson (also known as the Terrebonne Turnpike), links the villages of Mascouche and Terrebonne.|
|1876 08 23||Hubert draws up his will in Pointe-aux-Trembles before notary Octave Regnier.||Regnier 1876 #1634, Notarial Records, 1637-1935. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1876||Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.
Thomas Edison invents the cylinder phonograph or tin foil phonograph.
|1876||In 1876, the terminal and railway shops of the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, and Occidental Railway were built in the west end of Hochelaga. Workers found employment at the Hudon and Sainte-Anne cotton mills, the
MacDonald tobacco factory, a slaughterhouse, a gas company, tanneries, and tram workshops.
|1877 02 27||Heloise LAPOINTE signes a marriage contract with Philias ROY in Hochelaga QC.||Larose, 1877 #261; Fonds Cour Supérieure.
Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec ♦
|1877 03 03||Heloise LAPOINTE marries Philias ROY in Mascouche QC.||Mascouche parish register 1877. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1879||During the winter of 1879, a railway is established between Montréal and Québec, with a station in Mascouche.|
|1881||Hubert appears in the census in Pointe-aux-Trembles and his occupation is listed as menusier.||1881 Census of Canada. Library & Archives Canada. ♦|
|1881||The population of Hochelaga reaches 4000.
Numerous industries are established: cotton mills, tar paper and tobacco factories, tramway works, wood and sawmills. These businesses attracted a large workforce who settled in the area.
|1883-1884||The municipality of Maisonneuve is established and the municipality of Hochelaga is annexed to Montreal. Alphonse Desjardins is the first mayor of Maisonneuve. A number of tax incentives makes the town the 5th top industrial town in Canada (earning the nickname, Pittsburgh of Canada). Notable businesses include: St. Lawrence Sugar Co.; Canadian Vickers; Dufresne & Locke (shoe manufacturing); and La biscuiterie Viau.|
|1883||The town of Hochelaga was founded south of the present-day Rosemont Boulevard between Iberville and Vimont streets. Municipal finances were
drained by the construction of infrastructures such as streets, sewers, and an aqueduct, and the idea of facilitating urbanization by annexing Hochelaga to Montreal was quickly adopted.
|1883 06 11||Hubert Prevost and others apply to form a joint stock company with 2000 shares of $100 each. The company is called La Compagnie de Filature Saint-Joseph, Beauharnois and will manufacture cottons into various fabrics.||“Notice,” Gazette officielle du Québec, 1883-6-7; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦
|1884 12 26||Hubert is appointed a justice of the peace. by Lt Governor in council.||Gazette officielle du Québec, 1884-12-26; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1884||Spinsters and widows permitted to vote in municipal elections when voting rights are extended.|
|1885||Karl Benz invents the first practical automobile to be powered by an internal combustion engine.|
|1885 10 22||Hubert Prevost was one of six firms who bid on the construction contract for a market in Maisonneuve. His bid was unsuccessful.||“Comite des marches,” La Presse, 1885-10-22; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1885 11 07||Canadian Pacific Railway is completed: ‘Here on November 7, 1885, a plain iron spike welded East to West’, says a plaque in Craigellachie, Eagle Pass, BC.|
|1885 11 16||Louis Riel hanged: Accused of treason for leading the Métis resistance, Louis Riel’s hanging in Regina further degrades English-French
|Before 1886||Heloise’s first husband, Philias ROY dies||Mascouche parish register 1886 (marriage of Heloise & Hubert PRÉVOST). Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1886||Gottlieb Daimler builds the world’s first four-wheeled motor vehicle.
John Pemberton invents Coca Cola.
|1886 03 14
1886 03 17
|Hubert’s wife, Marie Zoe Elvina RIVE, dies in Pointe-aux-Trembles. She is buried on March 17.||Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1886. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦
“Necrologie,” La Presse, 1886-3-15; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦
|1886 04 27||Hubert’s daughter, Marie Alvina PRÉVOST, married Joseph CHRISTIN. In Pointe-aux-Trembles.||St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1886. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1886 09 21||Marriage of daughter, Eugenie Appoline PROVOST, to Jean-Baptiste FOISY.
Marriage of son, Michel Hubert PROVOST to Ernestine BELLIVEAU.
|St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1886. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1886 11 13||Hubert remarries to Héloise LAPOINTE (widow of Phileas Roy) in Mascouche.||Mascouche parish register 1886. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1887||Emile Berliner invents the gramophone.
Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee.
|1887 08 10||Hubert’s first grandson is born. Ernest PROVOST is the son of Michel Hubert
PROVOST and Ernestine BELLIVEAU.
|1887 10 12||Son Joseph Hubert PROVOST is born to Hubert and Héloise LAPOINTE in
|St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles 1887 parish register 1886. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1888||John Boyd Dunlop patents a commercially successful pneumatic tire.
Marvin Stone patents the spiral winding process to manufacture the first paper drinking straws.
Nikola Tesla invents the AC motor and transformer.
|1888 07 06||Hubert purchases several lots on Notre Dame Street for $2,500.||“VENTES ENREGISTREES,” Le Prix Courant, 1888-7-6; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1888 08 20||The parish of Très-Saint-Nom-de- Jésus is established in Maisonneuve.|
|1889 08 09||A construction permit is issued in Hochelega for the building of six brick houses on rue Ste Catherine. Hubert is listed as the carpentry contractor.||“Permis de construire,” Le Prix Courant, 1889-8-9; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1889 10 15||Marriage of daughter Marie Ezilda PRÉVOST to Delphis COUILLARD. In Montréal.||Très-St-Nom-de-Jésus (Maisonneuve) parish register 1889. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1890 04 25||Hubert resigns as advisor to the Maisonneuve town council because of conflict-of-interest allegations.||“Histoire d’une demission,” La Presse, 1890-4-25; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1889 01||The parish of Maisonneuve is formed.|
|1890 10 11||Hubert provides a mortgage guarantee in favour of his wife, Heloise.||Perodeau, 1890 #7567 ; Fonds Cour Supérieure.
Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec ♦
|1891 04 06||Hubert and his family are present on the 1891 census in Maisonneuve.||Census of Canada, 1891, Library & Archives Canada. ♦|
|1892 02 12||Hubert Prévost declares bankruptcy and his business assets put up for auction.||“Renseignements Commerciaux,” Le Prix Courant, 1892-2-12; Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1892 04||Granddaughter Antoinette PROVOST, daughter of Michel Hubert PROVOST and Ernestine BELLIVEAU is born.|
|1892 04 26||Auction of business assets due to bankruptcy. The auction includes woodworking equipment, lots in Hochelage and buildings.||“Avis de Faillite,” La Presse, 1892-4-1; Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦
|1892 05 13||H. Provost & Cie manufactue de portes, chassis etc, Montréal, Héloise Lpointe épouse de M. Hubert Provost seule depuis le 2 mai 1892.
Hubert’s wife Héloise is named as proprietor of his business.
|“Renseignments Commerciaux – Raisons sociales,” Le Prix Courant, 1892-5-13; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1892 05 23||Hubert’s son Sem Alexandre PROVOST married Louisa COLLIN in Montréal,||La Nativité-de-la-Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie parish register 1892. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1892 06 10||Héloise buys some of Hubert’s lots at auction for $10 plus mortgages.||Le Prix Courant, 1892-6-10; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1893 02 10||Héloise purchases a number of lots on
Rue Ste-Catherine in Maisonneuve, from the honourable Alphonse Desjardins for $1800.
|Le Prix Courant, 1893-2-10; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1893 05 08||Héloise’s father Laurent Napoleon DESAUTELS dit Lapointe dies.||Mascouche (St-Henri) parish register 1893. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1893 06 13||Hubert Provost & cie. is awarded a construction contract to build École St-Joseph, the first primary school in Hochelaga. Later on the school is known as première Hyacinthe-Hudon. The architect is Joseph Haynes.||“La Construction : Contrats donnés pendant la aemaine terminée le 10 Juin 1893.,” Le Prix Courant, 1893-6-13; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1894 08 10||An auction notice for unpaid taxes lists four lots owned by Heloise in the Quartier Ste-Marie area on Ste-Catherine Street which will be sold to pay for back taxes and an unpaid sidewalk assessment.||“Avis de vente d’immeubles,” La Presse, 1894-8-14, p. 4; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1895 – 1902||Hubert serves as a justice of the peace from 1895 to 1902||Gazette officielle du Québec, 1902-2-22; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1895 03 22||First public showing of a film on screen in Paris by Lumieres.|
|1895 07 11||A compromise is reached between Eloise Lapointe (Dame H. Prevost) & La ville de Maisonneuve.||Écrément 1895 #410. Fonds Cour supérieure. District judiciaire de Montréal. Greffes de notaires Image : 603555_
|1895 10 23||Hubert’s father passes away in Pointe-aux-Trembles QC.||St-Enfant-Jésus-de-la-Pointe-aux-Trembles parish register 1895. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1896||Rail and tramway construction links the village of Pointe-aux-Trembles to Montréal.|
|1896 01 16||Hubert was one of many prominent individuals who signed a public endorsement of the candidacy of J.C. Robert for reelection as alderman for the Ste-Marie district of Montreal||“Quartier Ste-Marie,” La Presse, 1896-1-16; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦
|1896 06 12||Héloise sells a number of lots (one with a house under construction) on Rue Ste Catherine, in the Quartier Ste-Marie to
A. Duperreault for $7,017.60
|“Ventes enregistrées de Montréal.,” Le Prix Courant, 1896-6-12; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1897 03 18||Héloise’s mother Marie Olive GUERRAY dies.||Mascouche (St-Henri) parish register 1897. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1898 06 24||Hon. N. Pérodeau sells a number of lots on Ste-Catherine St. in Maisonneuve to Hubert Prévost for $9500.||“Ventes enregistree en Montreal,” Le Prix Courant, 1898-6-24; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1899 03 10||Héloise files a complaint against J.B. Tremblay & Elias Gingras for $199 and judgement is rendered on March 31. The
details of the suit are not known.
|“Cour Superieurs Actions,” Le Prix Courant, 1899-3-10; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦
“Cour Superieure – Jugements rendus,” Le Prix Courant, 1899-3-31; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦
|1899 10 30||Canadian troops are sent overseas for the first time to fight in the Boer War, but this is opposed by Quebec.|
|1900||Around 1900 the Montreal Hunt Club opens its hunting grounds in Pointe-aux-Trembles.|
|1900 02 26||Hubert’s daughter Marie Alphonsine PROVOST married Wilfrid Alphonse GODIN in Montréal,||La Nativité-de-la-Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie parish register 1900. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1900 09 17||Hubert’s son Sem Alexandre PROVOST married Philomene LIMOGES in Montréal.||Très-St-Nom-de-Jésus, Maisonneuve, parish register 1900. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1900 11 30||Hubert, along with Joseph R. Guillemette, and Walter Reed, file a writ of summons against the town of Maisonneuve, for non-payment of honorariums for consultations and expertise.||“Actions contre la ville de Maisonneuve,” La Presse, 1900-11-30; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1900 12 07||The claim against Ville de Maisonneuve (defendant) is brought to the Superior court of Quebec by Walter Reid, Hubert Prevost, J.R. Guillemette.||“Province de Quebec, cour Superieure,” Le Prix Courant, 1900-12-7; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1901||In 1901 Hubert was living in Maisonneuve and earned $4000 as an entrepreneur and could read, write & speak English & French.||“Census of 1901,” database, Library and Archives Canada (http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca) ♦|
|1901 01 22||Queen Victoria dies and Edward VII becomes king.|
|1901 12 12||Marconi sends the first successful radio transmission across the Atlantic.|
|1902 02 22||Hubert’s grandaughter Marie Blanche Jeanette PROVOST is born to Michel Hubert PROVOST and Ernestine BELLIVEAU.||Parish register 1902. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1902 04 26||Hubert prepares his will before N. Perodeau.||“Notarial Records, 1637-1935,” database and images. N. Perodeau 1902 #11800. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. Act is missing. ♦|
|1902 05 03
1902 05 06
|Hubert died on May 3, 1901 and was buried on May 6, 1902.||Pointe-aux-Trembles Parish register 1902. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦
“M. Hubert Prévost,” La Presse, 1902-5-6; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦
|1903||First flight of Wilbur and Orville Wright|
|1903 12 17||Héloise signs a marriage contract with Amédé CHAMPAGNE in Montreal.
Their contract indicates that Heloise’s property remains hers alone (separatist of property) and will not form part of the
|Brien dit Desrochers. 1903 #
5379. Fonds Cour Supérieure.
Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec ♦
|1903 12 26||Héloise LAPOINTE marries Amédé CHAMPAGNE in Montréal, Québec.||Montreal Tres-St-Nom parish register 1903. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦|
|1906 06 12||Documents on behalf of Sem Alexandre are drawn re the succession of his mother Zoe Reeves.||“Archives des notaires du Québec” database and images. N. Perodeau 1906 #12977. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. ♦|
|1908||Production of Ford motor cars begins.|
|1910||The Union of South Africa is formed|
|1910 05 06||King Edward VII dies – George V become king.|
|Before 1911||Amédé CHAMPAGNE, Héloise’s third husband died before 1911. She is living in St-Martin (Laval).||1911 Census of Canada. Library and Archives Canada. ♦|
|1922||Héloise is not present in the 1922 Census.|
|1922 08 22
1922 08 25
|Héloise died after a long illness. She was living with her sister Azilda in St-Vincent-de-Paul (Laval). She was buried on August 25 in Montreal.||“Feu Mme H. Prevost,” La Presse, 1922-8-23; digital images, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec ♦
Montreal Notre Dame parish register. 1922. Institut Généalogique Drouin. ♦
♦ – documented or primary source evidence exists
♦ – credible evidence or research
♦ – unproven or uncertain evidence or research
♦ – speculation